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Summer School on Ubiquitous and Pervasive Computing

August 7-14, 2002, Schloss Dagstuhl, Germany

Workshop Contributions

Gerhard Austaller: Context-Aware Infrastructures for Mobile Services

At the Telecooperation Group we expect future applications for mobile users are going to be built of several services glued together. Not only services but also the service discovery and orchestration will be context aware. In my presentation I focus on the advantages of this approach and on its challenges. To illustrate the advantages I will give some examples that demonstrate the effectivity of our approach.


Martin Bauer: Nexus - A Platform for Context-Aware Systems

The talk provides a short overview of the Nexus project, which investigates concepts and methods for the support of context-aware applications for mobile users, where the most important context information is location. The goal is to develop a global platform for context-aware applications with a federated, distributed and dynamic model of the real world at its core that is augmented with virtual information.


Alastair Beresford, Robert Harle: Sentient Computing at the University of Cambridge

We present an introduction to the Bat System, our high-resolution indoor positioning system installed throughout our laboratory. We describe the physical layer construction and middleware used to support context-aware applications. The presentation will cover the successes and problems emerging from daily use of our ubiquitous computing environment. We conclude with a summary of the ongoing sentient computing research in our laboratory.


Jan Beutel: Positioning in Ad-Hoc Networks

I will give a short introduction to positioning mechanisms for ad-hoc networks. A motivation for our approach to integrate a multigranular positioning service in the network layer will be presented as well as possible applications. Our approach is applicable both for the relative as well as for the absolute positioning problem in a multihop ad-hoc network. Some recent results showing the influence of range quantization, error rate, network connectivity and topology are discussed. These suggest the use of situation specific algorithms and filtering mechanisms. I will conclude with a short demonstration of a simulation environment we have developed.


Sonja Buchegger: Malice, Selfishness and Slander in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

Nodes in mobile ad-hoc networks have to cooperate in order to communicate, however, they might be selfish and want to save power or downright malicious, trying to attack the network and taking advantage of cooperating nodes. This talk is about how to detect and isolate such misbehaving nodes based on observation, reputation, trust and action.


Thomas Buchholz: Context-Aware Services for UMTS-Networks

Current context-aware architectures were not designed for UMTS-networks. To realize context-aware services in UMTS service provisioning should be decoupled from context provisioning. Therefore, Business models need to be developed. Accounting and privacy become important issues. Furthermore, problems like finding the right information and/or service in a wide-area network and questions of inter- operability, roaming, and mass customization need to be addressed.


Jochen Denzinger: designing ubicomp - the mutual influences of ubiquitous computing and design.

The thesis seeks to identify and depict the influences of the concept of ubiquitous computing on design. Looking on the effects of ubiquitous computing on the practice of design, the study focusses furthermore on its impact on design-theory and methodologies. It also seeks to delineate the contribution and possible roles of design in ubiquitous computing.


Esko Dijk: Requirements for Future Ultrasound Location Systems

Context Awareness application requirements towards location systems will be presented, and it is shown in what ways they affect the design of a future ultrasound location system. Typically, minimal infrastructure and easy installation are important requirements.


Hannes Frey: Marketplaces as Communication Patterns in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

This talk motivates and gives a short survey on a novel communication pattern for mobile multihop ad-hoc networks which is based on a marketplace metaphor. In order to substantially increase the probability that negotiating peers sucessfully reach an agreement, communication is focused on a static geographic area, called the marketplace. Users are not constrained to be at the marketplace physically, but are allowed to utilize other ones mobile devices located at the marketplace to let a software agent or a service installed on each device negotiate with others on their behalf.


Dominik Heckmann: User Modeling and Ubiquitous Computing

Intelligent environments will communicate about users! Mobile information devices allow to carry user models along. Permanent evaluation of user behaviour with different systems and devices will lead to better user models and thus allow better functions of adaptation like adaptive web-sites, recommended products, navigation systems or speech interaction. My first steps towards a user modeling exchange language (UserML) will be described.

Nataliya Hristova: Ad-me: A Context-Sensitive Advertising System within a Mobile Tourist Guide

This talk provides the requirements and perspectives for Ad-Me (Advertising for the Mobile E-commerce user): an effective context and location-aware mobile advertising system being developed at University College Dublin (UCD). The next phase of electronic business growth will be in the area of mobile e-commerce. At the moment however such applications are still in their infancy and the translation from "e" to "m" to "u" commerce is not a straightforward task. An important class of m-commerce applications is that of Mobile Advertising. Ad-Me is a mobile tourist guide that proactively delivers advertisements to users based upon perceived individual user needs and device infrastructure, together with user location. A Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) design philosophy is adopted.


Tero Häkkinen: Bluetooth And Smart Clothes

Bluetooth has been suggested as a solution to almost any wireless communication problem requiring extremely small size and low power consumption. Communication between components in wearable computing equipment is one of these suggested application areas. However, the size and power consumption of existing Bluetooth components is still fairly far from negligible. Actually there are even better alternatives if high bit rate is not needed, but the lack of ready-made protocol solutions and compatibility with any existing devices makes them difficult to use. The standardization of Bluetooth gives it a big advantage. Availability of communication modules compatible with existing portable computing devices saves a lot of work in developing applications. Now that Bluetooth enabled and programmable mobile phones and PDAs have started to come to the market smart clothing applications could be built around a commercially available small user interface device and embedded sensors or peripheral units connected to it via Bluetooth.


Oliver Kasten: Smart-Its Sensor Nodes

In the Smart-Its project we have developed active, autonomous sensor nodes. The nodes feature a microcontroller, a Bluetooth radio and various sensors on a sensor board. I will briefly present the sensor node's design rational and main features.


Csaba Kiss Kalló: Wireless Hot Spots with Location-Aware Services

Since the number of portable devices increased considerably in the last few years, it is important to create infrastructure that offers services for these systems. In the frame of our project we intend to build several hot spots with Bluetooth, IEEE 802.11b, and GPRS access points. These hot spots will offer location- and context-aware services to devices equipped with these technologies.Since the most of our results so far are related to the IEEE 802.11b technology, this presentation is centered mainly on this aspect of our project.


Ursula Kretschmer: GEIST - A Mobile AR Information System to Experience History in an Immersive Environment

Goal of the GEIST project is the prototypical development of an education system. Here, historical facts of a town are transferred by a learning game. The users get a magic equipment. It consists of a display like binoculars, orientation sensors, and interaction tools. By use of these, they can watch the reality. At the same time ghosts appear in front of a historical scenery. They invite to solve tasks and to dive into the history of the environment. The scenery consists of reconstructions of buildings. They stand on the same place as they were during the 30 years war in Heidelberg and they are in the viewing field of the users. This means, that the reality needs to be superposed by the reconstructions.

This superimposing at the accurate position requires methods in the field of Augmented Reality. The learning game allows the users to move independently in the town. If they enter a place which is interesting for the game and therefore for the history of the town, the game will be continued. The sequence of the game depends on the duration, which can be scheduled in advance, and the frequented places. The sequence is different for all users. The end depends on decisions of one's own, suggestions of solutions, and solved tasks. The system uses different data bases. The users can get access to them by help of a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant).


Rainer Kroh: Ubiquitous Computing in a Vehicle Environment

After a short presentation of DaimlerChrysler Telematics Research I will talk about the need of ubiquitous computing technologies in the field of vehicles. To exemplify these needs I will present some service scenarios for a vehicle environment and the idea of so-called proactive-services.


Tatiana Lashina: Context-Aware Personal Remote Control

The EasyAccess project at Philips Research aims at natural and easy-to-use interaction techniques of accessing vast amounts of digital data, audio and video. The User-Centred Design approach forms the basis for our research. Within EasyAccess we started a work package on Context-Aware Personal Remote Control (PRC), as we call it. One of our primary research objectives was to find meaningful applications of context awareness in consumer electronics. Currently, we see several trends in consumer products; namely, information overload and the boost of functionality increase the complexity of user interfaces making it a serious issue. Context- aware applications provide a remedy, to a certain extent, as they make use of implicit information collected in the user environment. Another trend is that many personal computing devices will increasingly show initiative towards the user and attract user's attention. Today's mobile devices either fail to attract our attention when necessary or behave socially inappropriate by disturbing us at the moment we do not want to be disturbed. In the PRC prototype we demonstrate how the use of context information can enable the personal electronic device behaving in an appropriate way.


Paul Lukowicz: Distributed, Wearable, Context Recognition Systems

The talk will discuss the current state of our Lab's research on architecture concepts, models, and implementations of wearable computing and sensing system. It will focus on two aspects. First we will look at how complex context information about the users's activity can be derived from an array of heterogeneous sensors appropriately distributed over the user's body. I will then discuss architectural issues involved in minimizing the power consumption of such heterogenous distributed system, in particular through computation/communication tradeoffs.


Filipe Meneses: Personal Location Context

The development of location-based applications and services is dependent on the existence of information about the location of the user or mobile device. This positioning information can be acquired using different tracking devices and be interpreted on top of different space models (geographic and symbolic). Besides the location we believe that other personal information can be used to easily select the relevant information to a user in a certain place. We think the management of location information should be done in a Personal Manager because the interpretation of the location on top of space model may be done differently from person to person, with different interpretations of the space being done by the same person in the time.


Florian Michahelles: Applying Smart-Its in an everday's environment: Interactive Furniture Assembly

The Smart-Its project is interested in embedding sensing and computation in the real world: we have developed "Smart-Its" - small-scale embedded devices that can be attached to everyday objects to augment them with sensing, perception, computation, and communication. We think of these "Smart-Its" as enabling technology for building and testing ubiquitous computing scenarios. In an experimental case study with a IKEA PAX wardrobe we proofed the feasibility of this vision: By attaching computing devices and multiple sensors onto different parts of the assembly parts the system can recognize the actions of the user and determine the current state of the assembly. The system can suggest the next most appropriate action at any point in time. By this, referred to as proactive guidance, we aim to overcome limitations of today's printed instructions.

Martin Muehlenbrock: VIP - Visitor Support by Contextual Information

The VIP application project explores how information fed to a portable device can be generated from a number of context parameters. The application focuses on supporting a visitor who moves around in a physical information rich space. Typical users include visitors to our own research centre or visitors to a professional fair. Both cases are examples of situations where the related information, e.g. about projects, technologies, papers and people, is strongly correlated to the current user context. As part of the visitor context, his location is determined on the basis of the room-specific signal quality to different access points in a wireless local area network. Data from the sensors as well as information from the profiles is processed by using an inference engine to derive higher-level information such as co-location, activity, or entries of the visit diary.


Tatsuo Nakajima: Software Infrastructure for Home Computing

My talk describes our system infrastructure for building advanced home computing applications. Our system consists of two components. The first component is middleware for controlling home appliances, and the second component is middleware for user interface management. The talk shows an overview, current status, and future direction of our system.


Kasper Halleborg Pedersen: Mapping of TangO Model onto Jini Technology

Jini is considered as a technological platform/architecture for the TangO conceptual model, which is a conceptual model for modeling pervasive systems.


Mario Pichler: Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: What are the Open Issues?

In this talk I want to ask the question about the open issues (what is still missing?) that have to be solved in order to achieve spontaneous interaction and interoperation in mobile and ubiquitous systems. Is service discovery still an open issue? Do we need improvements of hardware- and/or software infrastructures? Do we need infrastructures or is the world going ad-hoc? ...


Jaana Rantanen: Smart Clothing Research at Tampere University of Technology

Smart clothes are ordinary clothes with added intelligence structures. This intelligence may be constructed using electrical and non-electrical modules, which are embedded inside clothing. In sophisticated solutions also the fabric material itself may be intelligence. Clothing covers users from other people's eyes and protects against surrounding environment and weather conditions. Smart clothes try to be better clothes than ordinary ones improving the functionality of ordinary clothing or sometimes also giving new functions and uses for clothes. Application areas comprise everything between entertainment and safety embodiments. Since the history of smart clothes is still quite short and only few commercial smart clothing products have been available there is an obvious need for basic research in this area. Additional modules inside clothing decrease the wearing comfort and therefore every additional module should be as lightweight and small as possible. Since clothes are physically very near humans become usability issues continuously more important. The smart clothing product should be as easy to use and nice to wear as ordinary clothing. Smart clothing system is often distributed all over the body area, which set demands for communication and connections between different modules. Ordinary plastic wires inside clothes cause inflexibility and are problematic between different pieces of clothing. In many cases wireless communication and conductive fibers as signal conductors are needed. Clothing like properties are important therefore e.g. heavy batteries cannot be carried and truly usable smart clothes should also be washable. In Technologies Enabling Smart Clothing Project we are concentrating on basic research including smart clothing concept, communication, power consumption, and physical structure of smart clothing.


Gerhard Reitmayr: Augmented Reality as a User Interface for Mobile Computing

Augmented Reality (AR), enhancing a user’s perception of the real world with computer generated entities, and mobile computing, allowing users to access and manipulate in-formation anytime and independent of location, are two emerging user interface technologies that show great promise. The combination of both into a single system makes the power of computer enhanced interaction and communication in the real world accessible anytime and everywhere. We will describe our work to build a mobile Augmented Reality system that supports true stereoscopic 3D graphics, direct interaction with virtual objects and 2D user interfaces. The system is assembled from off-the-shelf hardware components and serves as a basic test bed for user interface experiments related to computer supported collaborative work in Augmented Reality. Finally we will give an overview of some experimental applications we are developing in the area of location based computing.


Stephanie Riche: Client-side Storage

At HP Labs Grenoble, part of the research we conduct aims at enabling the personalization of any interaction with the digital world (web services, smart spaces, user interface) while enforcing user privacy. The presentation will focus on our approach to store and access user context information. Indeed, personalization and context-aware applications attempt to simplify access to and usage of an increasing number of devices and services. However, both require the availability of reliable context information to be effective. We are designing a personal context storage system acting as a context middleware layer on top of user devices in charge of the consitency and availability of user context information.


Michael Rohs: Entry Points into the ETH World Infostructure

In the context of ETH World - an initiative to establish a virtual campus augmenting the physical ETH - we conduct a project called "Entry Points into the ETH World Infostructure". Its main objectives are (1) the interweaving of the infostructure of ETH World with the physical infrastructure of ETH; (2) the provision and utilization of location information; and (3) the investigation and evaluation of privacy and user acceptance aspects.


Johan Sanneblad: Innovative Platforms for New Mobile Services

One of our research areas in the Future Applications Lab is to create new mobile services on devices such as PDAs and Smartphones. To create these services (such as ad hoc network games and mobile IM clients), we have created two platforms called GapiDraw and OpenTrek. This short talk will introduce these platforms and highlight some of their possibilities, making them the preferred choice for more than one hundred active developers worldwide.


Kulpreet Singh: Proximity Based Group Communications for Ubiquitous Computing

Communication models for ubiquitous computing, with their inherent mobile, global requirements, could derive considerable benefit from ad hoc networks with supporting ad hoc communication paradigms. Models for communication in ad-hoc networks are experiencing rapid development as a result of considerable research effort. One such model is to incorporate the notion of 'proximity' into ad-hoc communication. We will describe a version of this notion that uses a group communication mechanism that incorporates a strong sense of proximity. It is built on top of an ad-hoc network and will help in elegantly solving numerous problems encountered in Ubiquitous Computing such as gathering and distributing context, resource discovery, and querying remote regions for presence of certain characteristics. We intend to elaborate on this notion of Proximity Based Group Communication and present how we feel they can be used to solve certain problems in Ubiquitous Computing.

Tore Urnes: Session Retainment in Dynamic Service Landscapes

The vision of ubiquitous computing points towards a post-PC era where devices and services have a simpler, more focused purpose. More elaborate tasks should be accomplished through the spontaneous collaboration between devices and services. Technologies such as ad-hoc wireless networks and decentralized peer-to-peer systems appear well suited as facilitators of such spontenaety. Unfortunately, the resulting computing environment suffers from frequent disconnections and resource reroutings. This talk briefly describes work in progress looking at how sessions with network services can be retained in a service landscape where service bindings are dynamically reconfigured.

Andreas Weissel: Power Management in Ubiquitous Computing

Limiting battery lifetimes make energy efficiency a most critical design metric for ubiquitous and pervasive computing systems. The necessity of "ubiquitous power management" will become even more explicit if heat dissipation, battery weight and size are constrained. After a short overview of existing power management techniques for ubiquitous computing I want to present "Process Cruise Control", a scheduling policy which makes use of core frequency/voltage scaling to reduce the energy consumption. We have tackled the problem of finding the optimal process-specific execution speed in a time-sharing environment. Embedded event counters, which register HW activations, serve as the valuable source of information for the operating system scheduler. Once we have characterized a system, Process Cruise Control determines the optimal clock frequency of a thread according to its activation patterns and without performance loss.


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