ETH Zurich :
Computer Science :
Pervasive Computing :
Distributed Systems :
Ubicomp Summer School :
Summer School on Ubiquitous and Pervasive Computing
August 7-14, 2002, Schloss Dagstuhl, Germany
A Brief Survey of US Ubicomp Projects (45 min)
As a new field, Ubiquitous Computing is still being defined.
In part ubicomp is defined by the projects that choose to be
called ubicomp. I will give some examples I am familiar with
from groups in the US, using a "systems" point of view to relate
these projects. In addition I will use these projects as examples
to discuss ubiquitous computing research techniques.
A Web-Based Nomadic Computing System (45 min)
To give a more in-depth view of one system I will describe our
Project at HP Labs to develop a Web-Based Nomadic Computing System.
Physical hyperlinks connect physical entities -- people, places, or
things -- to virtual resources on the Web. Nomadic users of handheld
Web browsers can traverse links they encounter, giving
them simple context-dependent views of resources around them without
tracking the users. Printers, projectors, and picture frames that accept
hyperlinks allow these users to bring bits of the virtual world into
their physical environment.
Simulation as a Tool for Research in Ubiquitous Computing (45 min)
Ubiwise is an open-source simulator for ubiquitous computing.
The simulator concentrates on computation and communications devices,
either integrated with physical environments or carried by people. It
maintains a three dimensional model of a physical environment viewed by
users on a desktop computer through two windows. One window uses the
Quake III Arena graphics engine to show a first-person view of the
physical environment. The other window from a Java program shows a
close-up view of devices a user may manipulate using the desktop
keyboard and mouse in place of physical controls. Multiple users can
attach to the same server to create interactive ubiquitous computing
Ubiquitous Exercise (1.0 h)
In this exercise will try to imagine some of the potential in pervasive
computing and experience some of the challenges. We will break up into
teams; each team will be assigned two fantasy venues, for example
a school, a home, an office, a train, a museum, and a shopping area.
Each team will have a large collection of (pictures of ;-) computer and
communications devices. The goal for the exercise is to imagine a
useful and/or pleasant experience using any of this future technology.
The properties of the devices can be changed by the team without regard
to cost or development time but physical laws must be obeyed (e.g. no
teleportation ;-). Each team will give a short presentation of their
scenario; we will discuss what fundamental issues the examples raise
and the kinds of research work needed to explore those issues.
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Distributed Systems Support for Mobile and Pervasive Computing (1.5 h)
In this I'll take a broad look at different platforms and paradigms
for mobile and pervasive computing. I'll talk about historical systems
such as Rover and MOST and more recent efforts such as tuple-space based
platforms, concluding with a look at systems such as UPnP and Jini. I'll
pull in material from Tim and Armando's paper in IEEE Pervasive.
Experiences in Developing and Deploying the Archetypal Context-Aware Computing Application (1.5 h)
In this I'll look at research work in the field of context-aware tour
guides. I'll talk about past, present and future research and focus
on GUIDE as a case study of the practical issues in deploying ubicomp
systems. I'll generalize from GUIDE to other ubicomp applications.
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Context-Aware Computing (1.5 h)
Give a historical perspective on context-aware computing: what it is,
why it's important to ubiquitous computing. Talk about novel applications
that have been built, programming support for context-aware applications
and where the interesting research issues are on this topic.
Augmentation of Environments (1.5 h)
Augmentation of environments and people/objects in the environment.
Discuss the two approaches (and the combination of these approaches)
for supporting novel interaction. Give examples and discuss when it's
appropriate to use one or the other.
Evaluation of Ubicomp Applications and Systems (1.0 h)
Evaluation of ubiquitous computing applications and systems. Talk about
the traditional systems and HCI-based methods for evaluating desktop
applications and discuss which of these approaches are or are not
appropriate and why.
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Sensing in Ubiquitous Computing (1.5 h)
Ubiquitous computing is closely associated with visions of smarter
devices and environments capable of proactive services to their users.
Obviously, sensing is a key enabling technology to make this possible.
This lecture will investigate what sensing is used for in ubiquitous
computing, and in which ways this differs from more traditional sensing
applications. We'll discuss perception challenges (how extract meaning
from sensor-level observations), architectural issues (e.g. sensors in
the device vs in the environment) and systems challenges (e.g. energy
Computer-Augmented Environments: Back to the Real World (1.5 h)
This talk adopts its title from a CACM special issue published in 1993.
The aim is to convey a design-driven perspective of ubiquitous computing
which is based on the primacy of the physical world and the ideal of
introducing computing technology unobtrusively. We will discuss design
affordances of physical artefacts and structures, and review research
work on augmentation of artefacts for digital interaction (e.g. tangible
user interfaces, and ambient displays). The session will conclude with
an introduction to a design exercise.
Design Exercise on Computer-Augmented Environments (1.0 h)
This is a design exercise to further explore ideas raised in the
preceding lecture. For this exercise, we'll break into small groups,
and each group will get an assignment for augmentation of a set of
artefacts or a place at Dagstuhl.
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The Case for Ubicomp Privacy (1.5 h)
In the first session, I'd like to explore the nature of privacy, its
history and driving factors, and how these will influence the way we
perceive and value our privacy in a world full of smart, communicating
objects that monitor our every moves.
Tools for Ubicomp Privacy (1.5 h)
The second session will look at some privacy-enhancing-technologies
and examine if and how these present a viable option for keeping our
privacy in a future full of ubiquitous computing. Many experts agree that
technology alone is not sufficient, but that legal means must complement
any such technical solution. Although plenty such legal means exist,
I want to give a brief overview on what kinds of laws exist worldwide
and what use they can be in the future. Last not least I also want to
touch on the role of ethics within this framework.
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Introducing the Summer School and Ubiquitous Computing Technologies (1.5 h)
The opening session consists of two parts: The first part will mention
some organizational issues and introduce the lecturers and the schedule.
The second part gives an overview on pertinent technology trends. We
will assume that all participants know (or think that they know) what
ubiquitous and pervasive computing is, but assessing the long-term trends
and speculating about the future development of relevant technologies
is probably interesting and relevant.
Smart Identification (1.5 h)
We explain how RFIDs (i.e., "radio tags" or "smart labels") work and we
give give a short overview on smart card technologies. We also mention
current and future applications of smart labels.
Physical-Virtual Integration, Ubicomp Applications, Ubicomp Implications (1.5 h)
We show how smart labels, wireless sensors, embedded processors,
together with the Internet back-end infrastructure, contribute to the
integration of the physical world and the virtual world. Smart everyday
objects enable many new applications and business ideas, and create
unique opportunities and challenges. Living in a smart environment has
interesting consequences, however.
Short Tutorial on Wireless Technologies and Mobile Computing
(1.5 h, optional lecture)
An optional evening lecture for those participants
who have little knowledge on these subjects.
Bluetooth (1.5 h, optional lecture)
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Wearable Computers as Intelligent Agents (3.0 h)
Creating intelligent agents that may assist the user on a
second-by-second basis during their everyday life is a unique
challenge that has few parallels with the past. Research into
perception, user modeling, and interface design will be necessary to
create compelling assistants that do not interfere with the user's
normal work and lifestyle. This lecture will concentrate on
development platforms, perception techniques, intelligent agents, and
evaluation methods that have been used in the past or are currently
Power and Heat in Ubiquitous Computing (1.5 h)
While RAM size, CPU speed, and hard disk storage size have increased
exponentially over the past 10 years for mobile devices, battery
energy density has increased by less than a factor of 3. Thus, energy
must be a "first-class" design issue whenever discussing devices for
mobility or for distribution into an unpowered environment. In
addition, the heat generated from using this energy can prove to be a
limiting factor in speed of computation; in fact, this problem is one
of the primary concerns of laptop manufacturers. We will explore
alternative ways of powering and cooling ubiquitous computing devices,
discuss a basic overview of the physics involved, and provide the
basic mathematical tools needed to analyze a system. Emphasis will be
on wearable systems and designing computing infrastructure for
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Guest Lecture by Mark Billinghurst
Collaborative Augmented Reality (45 min)
Augmented Reality (AR) interfaces typically involve the overlay of virtual
imagery over the real world. In this presentation I describe how
AR techniques can be used to enhance face to face and
remote collaboration. In our research we have discovered that augmented
reality can be used to restore spatial cues normally missing in remote
collaboration and provide an intuitive way of interacting with virtual
models in a face to face setting.
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All Lecturers and Participants
Group Work on Ubicomp Scenarios (3.0 h)
On the first day of the summer school, participants get some papers that
deal with classical predictions about the future (e.g., "as we may live"),
recent Ubicomp scenarios, some articles that are rather skeptical with
respect to the Ubicomp future, some optimistic and naive predictions,
but also some serious predictions. Participants should read these papers
during the first days. In a first group work session, groups of 10-12
participants discuss these papers and come up with their opinion and
their own idea about the future with Ubicomp. In a second session, those
findings will be presented to all and hopefully discussed in a
Group Work on Ubicomp Scenarios
Scenarios for AmI & AmI@Home project
Participants' Workshop (4.5 h distributed over 3 days)
Participants give a 10 minutes presentation on their work and interests.
Abstracts of the workshop contributions are available
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