Small logo of ETH main building ETH Zurich : Computer Science : Pervasive Computing : Distributed Systems : Education : DS SS2007

Human Computer Interaction
Understanding Computing from the User's Perspective

Dr. Marc Langheinrich, Dr. Elaine Huang
Fachseminar "Verteilte Systeme" SS2007

Course Evaluation: Results, Comments (multiple images in a single TIFF file), and Median Comparison.

Zeit und Ort:

Dienstag, 11:15-13:00 Uhr, IFW C42

Start: 20.03.2007 / Ende: 19.06.2007 (Ausfall: 1.5.07 und 15.05.07)

This seminar introduces the subject of HCI and the importance of human/user-centered computing. and provides a survey of the fundamental history, paradigms, and techniques of human-computer interaction. The class also offers rudimentary hands-on experience in employing formative and summative evaluation techniques, as well as design and prototyping techniques commonly used in HCI research and practice. Several focus areas of HCI are examined in depth through classic, seminal papers that laid the groundwork and opened up important areas of research, as well as through recent influential and cutting-edge work that shapes the current state of the field.

Course Schedule

#DateTopicRead Before ClassBring To ClassS&T
120.03.Intro and Fundamentals I: Paradigms DOET Ch. 1 - Marc
227.03.Fundamentals II: Interaction & Usability DOET Ch. 2-3 - Elaine
303.04.Fundamentals III: Design & Prototyping DOET Ch. 4-5 - Marc
410.04.Fundamentals IV: Evaluation Techniques DFAB Ch. 9.3.1 & 9.3.2 Field Study Report Elaine
517.04.Team 1: Cognitive Models
Reto M./ Ali A. - Assistant: Steve
[CMN86, Suc87, Nar95]Assignment A1Team 8
624.04.Team 2: Ubicomp Devices and Environments
Jonas H./David H. - Assistant: Christof
[Wei95] + questionAssignment A2Team 7
701.05.No Class (Public Holiday)
808.05.Team 3: Information Visualization
Ramon K./Dorian K. - Assistant: Benedikt
see question
(optional: [CMS99])
Assignment A3Team 6
915.05.No Class (Pervasive2007)
1022.05.Team 4: Intelligent User Interfaces
Michele S./Claudia K. - Assistant: Ruedi
[May99]Assignment A4Team 5
1129.05.Team 5: Privacy and Security UIs
Michael H./Yves A. - Assistant: Philipp
see question
(optional: [AdS99])
Assignment A5Team 4
1205.06.Team 6: CSCW
Philippe J./Stephan G. - Assistant: Silvia
see questionAssignment A6Team 3
1312.06.Team 7: Toolkits
Thomas L./Angelo R. - Assistant: Robert
see questionAssignment A7Team 2
1419.06.Team 8: Assistive Technology
Lorenz B./Beatrice M. - Assistant: Moritz
see questionAssignment A8Team 1

Requirements / Activities

Each student is expected to actively participate in class. Several distinct activities are planned:
  • Reading/Assignments: (Each week) Students are expected to read supplemental material ahead of each lecture. See "Read Before Class"-column in Course Schedule. For assignments in weeks 5-14, students will need to turn in a 1-2 page statement answering a set of questions given out by the instructors.
  • Mini-Field-Study: (Week 4) Students conduct naturalistic evaluations of real users interacting with a system or interface in an authentic setting and use context. Based on an idealized interaction sequence (using Norman's 7-stage model of interaction), students identify user errors and slips, and where they occur in the model. When possible, students identify design flaws in the system, and suggest design recommendations, justifying how they would improve the system based on previously learned design principles.
  • Show and Tell: (Once in weeks 5-14) Students bring in a device, object, or interface that they find difficult to use. The class will briefly discuss its interface and identify design flaws as a warm-up exercise (two students at each class, according to schedule).
  • Lead Class Session: (Once in weeks 5-14) Team of students will read 2-4 papers, present a 20-30 min summary in class, and lead a discussion following their presentation.

Assignments

Details for each assignment will be given here approx. one week before the respective talk.

Naturalistic Observation Exercise

The purposes of this assignment are:

  • To gain experience in conducting naturalistic observations
  • To get practice applying Norman's seven-stage model of interaction
  • To familiarize yourselves with the various types of slips and errors that users make
  • To synthesize other concepts that you have learned in class and readings (usability principles, visibility, feedback, affordances, etc.)

More details can be found in the flyer.

A1: Cognitive Models

Read [CMN86], [Suc87], and [Nar95]. Then try to answer one of the questions below, in about 1-2 pages:

  1. Select a concept from Don Norman's The Design of Everyday Things [DOET] (e.g., mapping, feedback, affordances, slips, visibility). Pick two of the cognitive models discussed in the readings and describe (i.e., compare and contrast) how each might take the DOET concept into account.
  2. Imagine you are designing an online bookstore. Select two of the cognitive models discussed in the readings and compare and contrast how you might design the some aspect or feature of the store for each model. (Do not design an entire bookstore; just select some feature or set of features!)
  3. Take out your cell phone and go through the steps of the interaction necessary to add a new contact to your address book (you might want to write down these steps). Select two of the cognitive models discussed in the readings and compare and contrast how you would analyze the interaction steps from the perspective of each model.

A2: Ubicomp Devices and Environments

Read [Wei91]. Then choose one of the questions below and try to answer it in about 1-2 pages, additionally reading the paper(s) listed in the respective question:

  1. [HPHS05] describe an automatic power-on function they implemented on a PDA. By contrast, they did not implement an automatic power-off function. On what grounds did the authors make this design decision? Do you agree with their reasoning?
  2. According to [Sch00], implicit interaction is based on the two concepts of perception and interpretation. In which area do you see the biggest challenges? Why? What conclusions can be drawn from your observation for the design of implicit interaction?
  3. The authors of [HPHS05] and [Sch00] both reason about interaction and sensing taking place in the background vs. foreground. Please name several criteria that allow a developer to determine if a system activity should take place in the foreground or in the background. Explain your choices.

A3: Information Visualization

Choose one of the questions below and try to answer it in about 1-2 pages, based on your understanding of the respective papers listen in the questions:

  1. Read [VWD04] and [Wat06] and do a comparison of the two. State for which type of data one or the other does a better job of visualization and why.
  2. Read [Bed01] and [VWD04]. Think about something like a community of blogs and design some feature or aspect of the blog to which one could apply each visualization technique and why.
  3. Read [Wij06] and [Wat06] and discuss why the Namevoyager has been successful (in van Wijks terminology).
If you're interested, you can also optionally read [CMS99] for a general introduction to the topic, and/or watch Rosling's TED-Talk.

A4: Intelligent User Interfaces

Choose one of the questions below and try to answer it in about 1-2 pages, based on your understanding of the respective papers listen in the questions:

  1. Compare [FHAA+05] with [HKPH03]: In which respect are the two works on human interruptibility and on human attention similar? Where and how do they differ?
  2. Read [HKR00]. Do a similar (mini-) survey as presented in the paper, but based on book recommendation: 1) Come up with at least 8 different explanations on why to trust a recommendation (they might be inspired by the paper). 2) Have a least 3 people order them in decreasing reliability for them for books recommendations. 3) Compare your results to the ones found in the paper and relate them to the three key research questions given in the paper. Document your work and motivate your conclusions.
  3. [FHAA+05] and [HoA03] both claim each others work complementary. Elaborate on this. What might be reasons for [FHAA+05] to claim that the two are inappropriate for direct comparison?

A5: Privacy and Security UIs

Choose one of the questions below and try to answer it in about 1-2 pages, based on your understanding of the respective papers listen in the questions:

  1. Critically assess and compare [CaI06] with [RJDF+06]. For what kinds of uses does one work better than the other? What are the shortcomings & strengths of the approaches?
  2. The authors of [KGTP+05] list five design principles for developing user-friendly security applications in Section 4 of their paper. Critically review how well [KGTP+05] fulfills their own guidelines. Should [GaM05] address the same issues, and if so, does it succeed? If not, why does it not (have to) address them?
  3. [Yee05] provides 10 design guidelines for software behaviour to secure user interaction. Examine your favorite instant messenger (Skype, MSN, etc) on the basis of these guidelines. Give examples where a guideline is followed particularly well, as well as examples where the application fails to fulfill a guideline (or supports it very poorly). Describe how the application could be improved in this respect.

A6: CSCW

Choose one of the questions below and try to answer it in about 1-2 pages, based on your understanding of the respective papers listen in the questions:

  1. [Gru94] lists eight main challenges for groupware developers. Describe if and how the Notification Collage (NC) by Greenberg and Rounding [GrR01] addresses these challenges. Are all of Grudin's 8 principles equally critical for the success of the NC? If not, indicate the three most relevant and motivate your ranking.
  2. [SFN04] describe how cultural differences lead pairs of people collaborating using IM to conceive of tasks differently. Pick a specific CSCW technology, such as Wikis or email clients. Describe how one could change or add features to such a technology to help support cross-cultural collaboration, or help alleviate some of the difficulties with cross-cultural collaboration. If you do not believe it is possible to design to support cross-cultural collaboration for the technology you have selected, please explain why. In either case, support your design suggestions or arguments with Setlock et al.'s findings regarding culture and CSCW. Note: Olson and Olson [OlO00] address a similar topic and describe difficulties in remote collaboration that stem from cultural differences between collaboration teams. Feel free to read their work instead or in addition to Setlock et al. However, this is very much optional (it's a long paper, but very interesting!)
  3. Nardi et al. [NWB00] describe several of the characteristics of IM that make it a successful tool in the workplace, as well as several types of interactions between co-workers that IM supports. Identify 3-4 of these characteristics or interactions and explain what makes them successful using Grudin's [Gru94] 8 Challenges for CSCW (i.e. which of Grudin's criteria does each of the interactions mentioned by Nardi meet?) If you believe that a successful use of IM found by Nardi cannot be explained by Grudin's framework, what other "challenge" would you say that it fulfills?

A7: Toolkits

Choose one of the questions below and try to answer it in about 1-2 pages, based on your understanding of the respective papers listen in the questions:

  1. When looking at toolkits, there is the question of how to determine the functionality they should provide and how to evaluate their success. Use the Papier Mache toolkit [KLLL04] as a starting point to come up with methods to determine the functionality a specific toolkit should provide and a way of evaluating a toolkit's success and benefits. ([HoL00] optionally provides some additional material)
  2. Look at the iStuff toolkit [BRSB03] that consists of hardware devices and an software infrastructure that support the rapid prototyping of "post-desktop" user interfaces. Think of a hardware device that is currently not part of the toolkit and a simple application that could make use of it. Describe the steps necessary in order to integrate your hardware device into the iStuff framework and to use it from your application. Where in the introduced classification of iStuff devices would you see your device?
  3. Compare the iStuff toolkit [BRSB03] and the Phidget toolkit [GrF01]. Discuss the commonalities as well as the differences. Regarding the commonalities, can you see some features both toolkits provide that would make sense for a wide range of other toolkits, too? (optionally reading [KLLL04] might be helpful regarding the last point)

A8: Assistive Technology

Choose one of the questions below and try to answer it in about 1-2 pages, based on your understanding of the respective papers listen in the questions:

  1. Read [MMPK04] and one (or both) of [WMAL04] or [HRIB+03]. Based on these readings, compare the challenges designing for cognitive impairments versus physical impairments. Also compare the challenges for evaluating such systems.
  2. Read [MKMM01] (very short but very interesting), [HLBH+05], and [HRIB+03]. Consider Don Norman's discussion of affordances; the populations for which these systems are designed perceive different affordances than typical user populations. Describe how the affordances of the systems are specifically designed to support use by these populations.
  3. Read [HRIB+03] and one (or both) of [HLBH+05], [WMAL04]. The latter two have have both involved members of the population for which they are designing in the design or evaluation process. [HRIB+03] simulates blindness by using sighted people who are blindfolded. Additionally, the iCare Reader has yet to be evaluated. Identify some specific benefits and difficulties of using actual members of the population with the impairments for which the systems are designed, as described in the [HLBH+05] and/or [WMAL04] paper, and make some suggestions as to how the iCareReader could involve potential users and what benefit they might offer.

Contact:

Marc Langheinrich <langhein@inf.ethz.ch>
IFW D48.3, tel: 63 20688

Recommended Reading

[DOET]Donald Norman: The Design of Everyday Things. Basic Books, 2002. See Don Norman's Website
[DFAB]Alan Dix, Janet Finlay, Gregory Abowd, Russel Beale: Human-Computer Interaction, 3rd edition. Prentice Hall, 2004. See the Book Website

Research Papers

The list below is for informational purposes only. Each team should contact the instructors for final confirmation of the corresponding papers.

Cognitive Models
[CMN86]Stuart Card, Thomas Moran, Allen Newell: The Model Human Processor. In: Boff, Kaufmann, and Thomas (eds.): Cognitive processes and performance, chapter 45. Wiley, 1986
[Suc87]Lucy Suchman: Situated Actions. In: Lucy Suchman: Plans and Situated Actions: The Problem of Human-Machine Communication, chapter 4. Cambridge University Press, 1987
[Nar95]Bonnie A. Nardi: Studying Context: A Comparison of Activity Theory, Situated Action Models, and Distributed Cognition. In: Context and consciousness: activity theory and human-computer interaction, pp.69-102, 1995.
[Hal04]Christine A. Halverson: Activity Theory and Distributed Cognition: Or What Does CSCW Need to DO with Theories? Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) Vol.11, No. 1-2, March 2002.
[KPC]Anders Kofod-Petersen and Jörg Cassens: Using Activity Theory to Model Context Awareness. In Thomas R. Roth-Berghofer, Stefan Schulz, and David B. Leake (eds.): Modeling and Retrieval of Context: MRC 2005, Revised Selected Papers, volume 3946 of LNCS, pages 1-17, Edinburgh, 2006. Springer.
[BeB03]Olav W. Bertelsen, Susanne Bodker: Activity Theory. In: John M. Carroll (Ed.): HCI Models, Theories, and Frameworks. Morgan Kaufmann, 2003, Chapter 11, pp.291-324
Ubicomp Devices and Environments
[Wei91]Mark Weiser: The Computer for the 21st Century. Scientific American, Volume 265, Issue 3, pp.66-75, September 1991
[Sch00]Albrecht Schmidt: Implicit human computer interaction through context. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, Volume 4, Issue 2-3. Springer, June 2000.
[Eri02]Thomas Erickson: Some problems with the notion of context-aware computing. Communications of the ACM, Volume 45, Issue 2, February 2002, pp.102-104
[BBEG+02]Victoria Bellotti, Maribeth Back, W. Keith Edwards, Rebecca E. Grinter, Austin Henderson, Cristina Lopes: Making sense of sensing systems: five questions for designers and researchers. Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems (CHI 2002), pp.415-422.
[BSKA+05]Steve Benford and Holger Schnaedelbach and Boriana Koleva and Rob Anastasi and Chris Greenhalgh and Tom Rodden and Jonathan Green and Ahmed Ghali and Tony Pridmore and Bill Gaver and Andy Boucher and Brendan Walker and Sarah Pennington and Albrecht Schmidt and Hans Gellersen and Anthony Steed: Expected, sensed, and desired: A framework for designing sensing-based interaction. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI), 12(1), 2005, pp.3-30.
[HPHS05]Ken Hinckley and Jeff Pierce and Eric Horvitz and Mike Sinclair: Foreground and background interaction with sensor-enhanced mobile devices. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI), 12(1), 2005, pp.31-52.
[DeM05]Anind K. Dey and Jennifer Mankoff: Designing mediation for context-aware applications. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI), 12(1), 2005, pp.53-80.
Information Visualization
[RRR04]Hans Rosling, Anna Rosling Rönnlund, Ola Rosling: New Software Brings Statistics Beyond the Eye. OECD World Forum on Key Indicators: Statistics, Knowledge and Policy, 2004. See also TED-Talk by Hans Rosling.
[Wat06]Martin Wattenberg and Jesse Kris: Designing for social data analysis. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, Volume 12, Issue 4, pp.549-557. IEEE Press, July-August 2006.
VWD04Fernanda Viégas, Martin Wattenberg, and Kushal Dave: Studying Cooperation and Conflict between Authors with "History Flow" Visualizations. Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 2004), pp.575-582.
[Tuf01]Edward Tufte: The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Graphics Press, 2001. [Informatik-Bibliothek]
[Bed01]B. B. Bederson: PhotoMesa: A Zoomable Image Browser Using Quantum Treemaps and Bubblemaps. Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology (UIST 2001), pp.71-80.
[CMS99]S. Card, J. Mackinlay and B. Shneiderman: Readings in Information Visualization, Using Visualization to Think Morgan Kaufmann, 1999, pp.1-34. [Informatik-Bibliothek]
[Wij06]Jarke J. van Wijk: Views on Visualization. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, Vol 12, No 4, July/Aug 2006, pp.421-432
Intelligent User Interfaces
[May99]Mark Maybury: Intelligent user interfaces: an introduction. IUI '99 - Proceedings of the 4th international conference on Intelligent user interfaces, ACM Press, New York, NY, USA.
[HASL05]Eric Horvitz, Johnson Apacible, Raman Sarin, Lin Liao: Prediction, Expectation, and Surprise: Methods, Designs, and Study of a Deployed Traffic Forecasting Service. Twenty-First Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence, UAI-2005, Edinburgh, Scotland, July 2005.
[HKR00]Jonathan L. Herlocker, Joseph A. Konstan, John Riedl: Explaining Collaborative Filtering Recommendations. Proceedings of the 2000 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work (CSCW 2000).
[HKPH03]Eric Horvitz, Carl Kadie, Tim Paek and David Hovel: Models of attention in computing and communication: from principles to applications. Commun. ACM, vol. 46(3), 2003, pp. 52-59, ACM Press, New York, NY, USA.
[FHAA+05]Fogarty, J., Hudson, S.E, Atkeson, C.G., Avrahami, D., Forlizzi, J., Kiesler, S., Lee, J.C., and Yang, J. (2005). Predicting Human Interruptibility with Sensors. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction(TOCHI), Vol. 12, No.1, March 2005, pp. 119-146.
[GaW04]Krzysztof Gajos and Daniel S. Weld: SUPPLE: automatically generating user interfaces. IUI '04: Proceedings of the 9th international conference on Intelligent user interfaces, ACM Press, New York, NY, USA.
[HoA03]Eric Horvitz and Johnson Apacible: Learning and reasoning about interruption. ICMI '03: Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Multimodal interfaces, 2003, ACM Press, New York, NY, USA.
Privacy and Security UIs
[AdS99]Anne Adams and Martina Angela Sasse: Users are not the Enemy. Communications of the ACM, Vol. 42, Issue 12, Dec. 1999, pp.40-46
[WhT99]Alma Whitten, J.D. Tygar: Why Johnny Can't Encrypt: A Usability Evaluation of PGP 5.0. Proceedings of the 8th USENIX Security Symposium, 1999. Reprinted in Lorrie Cranor and Simson Garfinkel: Security and Usability: Designing Secure Systems that People can Use. O'Reilly, 2005, pp.679-702.
[Yee05]Ka-Ping Yee: User Interaction Design for Secure Systems. In: Lorrie Cranor and Simson Garfinkel: Security and Usability: Designing Secure Systems that People can Use. O'Reilly, 2005, pp. 247-273
[GaM05]Simson L. Garfinkel, Robert C. Miller: Johnny 2: A User Test of Key Continuity Management with S/MIME and Outlook Express. Proceedings of the Symposium On Usable Privacy and Security 2005, Pittsburgh, PA, July 6-8, 2005.
[KGTP+05]Cynthia Kuo, Vincent Goh, Adrian Tang, Adrian Perrig, Jesse Walker: Empowering Ordinary Consumers to Securely Configure Their Mobile Devices and Wireless Networks. Carnegie Mellon CyLab Technical Report CMU-CyLab-05-005. December 7, 2005.
[CaI06]Xiang Cao and Lee Iverson: Intentional Access Management: Making Access Control Usable for End-Users. Proceedings of the 2nd Symposium On Usable Privacy and Security (SOUPS2006). July 12-14, 2006.
[RJDF+06]Jennifer Rode, Carolina Johansson, Paul DiGioia, Roberto Silva Filho, Kari Nies, David H. Nguyen, Jie Ren, Paul Dourish, David Redmiles: Seeing further: extending visualization as a basis for usable security. Proceedings of the 2nd Symposium On Usable Privacy and Security (SOUPS2006). July 12-14, 2006. [slides]
CSCW
[Gru94]Jonathan Grudin: Groupware and Social Dynamics: Eight Challenges for Developers. Communications of the ACM, Volume 37, Issue 1, pp.92-105.
[NWB00]Bonnie A. Nardi, Steve Whittaker, Erin Bradner: Interaction and Outeraction: Instant Messaging in Action. Proceedings of the 2000 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, pp.79-88.
[OlO00]Gary Olson and Judy Olson: Distance Matters, Human-Computer Interaction, Volume 15, Issue 2-3, pp.139-178.
[SFN04]Leslie D. Setlock, Susan R. Fussell, Christine Neuwirth: Taking It Out of Context: Collaborating Within and Across Cultures in Face-to-Face Settings and Via Instant Messaging. Proceedings of the 2004 ACM conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, pp.604-613.
[GrR01]Saul Greenberg, Michael Roudning: The Notification Collage: Posting Information to Public and Personal Displays. Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2001, pp.514-521.
Toolkits
[LNHL00]James Lin, mark W. Newman, Jason I. Hong, James A. Landay: DENIM: finding a tighter fit between tools and practice for Web site design, Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems (CHI 2000), The Hague, The Netherlands, 2000, pp. 510-517
[SDA99]Daniel Salber, Anind K. Dey, Gregory D. Abowd: The context toolkit: aiding the development of context-enabled applications. Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems: the CHI is the limit (CHI 1999). Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States, 1999, pp. 434-441.
[GrF01]Sail Greenberg, Chester Fitchett: Phidgets: easy development of physical interfaces through physical widgets. Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology (UIST 2001), Orlando, Florida, 2001, pp. 209-218.
[BRSB03]Rafael Ballagas, Meredith Ringel, Maureen Stone, Jan Borchers: iStuff: a physical user interface toolkit for ubiquitous computing environments. Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems (CHI 2003), Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USA, 2003, pp. 537-544.
[KLLL04]Scott R. Klemmer, Jack Li, James Lin, James A. Landay: Papier-Mache: toolkit support for tangible input. Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems (CHI 2004). Vienna, Austria, 2004, pp. 399-406.
[HoL00]Jason I. Hong, James A. Landay: SATIN: a toolkit for informal ink-based applications, Proceedings of the 13th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology (UIST 2000). San Diego, California, United States, 2000, pp. 63-72.
Assistive Technology
[WMAL04]Jacob O. Wobbrock, Brad A. Myers, Htet Htet Aung, Edmund F. LoPresti: Text Entry from Power Wheelchairs: EdgeWrite for Joysticks and Touchpads. ACM SIGACCESS Accessibility and Computing (ASSETS 2004), pp.110-117.
[MKMM01]Melody Moore, Philip Kennedy, Elizabeth Mynatt, Jennifer Mankoff: Nudge and Shove: Frequency Thresholding for Navigation in Direct Brain-Computer Interfaces. Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 2001, pp.361-362.
[HLBH+05]Valerie Henderson, Seungyon Lee, Helene Brashear, Harley Hamilton, Thad Starner, and Steven Hamilton: Development of an American Sign Language Game for Deaf Children. Proceedings of Interaction Design and Children. Boulder, CO. June 2005.
[HRIB+03]Terri Hedgpeth, Mike Rush PE, Vivek Iyer, John Black, Mehmet Donderler, Sethuraman Panchanathan: iCare-Reader - A Truly Portable Reading Device for the Blind. 6th Annual Accessing Higher Ground Conference: Assistive Technology and Accessible Media in Higher Education, 2003.
[MMPK04]Karyn Moffatt, Joanna McGrenere, Barbara Purves, Maria Klawe: The Participatory Design of a Sound and Image Enhanced Daily Planner for People with Aphasia. Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems, 2004, pp.407-414.
ETH ZurichDistributed Systems Group
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